General certificates of analysis for production wines include alcohol strength, reducing sugar analysis, pH and acidity, transition metal analysis and sulphur dioxide (free and total).
Some of the analytical techniques developed for spirits analysis have been adapted for wines. These adaptations include full organic acid profiling using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to chemical ionisation procedures. Determinations of the volatile acids and the non-volatile acids allow accurate profiling of lactic, acetic, malic, tartaric, oxalic and citric acids.
Urethane analysis by either GC-MS with single ion monitoring or GC-TEA is readily accomplished down to sub parts per billion (ppb) levels. Full elemental analysis using direct injection ICP-MS with minimal workup and also the determination of migration phthalate compounds by GC-MS (SIM) techniques.
Future planned analytical techniques include LC-triple quad MS which will give highly sensitive specific analysis allowing the rapid determination of trace herbicides and pesticides.